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Prions - SlideShar

Today we know that kuru is one of several diseases in humans and animals caused by prion (PREE-on) proteins. The Mystery of Kuru 2. Introduction to Prions - Pronounced pree-on - Shortened term for: Proteinaceous Infections Particle - Causes TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Disease) which attacks the central nervous system (the brain). 3 Kuru has 3 clinical stages -Ambulant -Sedentary -Terminal clinical signs. -Headache and pain usually in the joints of legs. -Cerebellar ataxia, tremors and and athetoid movements are distinctive. -Shivering amplifiable by cold was the symptom on the basis of which the disease was named kuru

Kuru is a disease of man. It is transmitted by cannibalism in Fore people in Papua/New Guinea. No one born since these practices ceased has acquired Kuru. There is no evidence for transmission to fetus, transmission via milk or intimate social contact. 24 25. cerebellar ataxia and a shivering-like tremor Slow virus disease of humans and animals, kuru, an exception to central dogma, maedi, visna Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising

Classification Group A- Slowly progressive infections of sheep Visna Maedi Caused by serologically related non-oncogenic retro- viruses called as lentiviruses Another e.g.- HIV Group B- Comprising prion disease of CNS, scrapie,mink encephalopathy, kuru, CJD. 7 Diseases of the Nervous System 4. Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) A) Once common but now a relatively minor problem in the Western world B) Caused by Mycobacterium leprae 1) An acid-fast (+) bacillus C) M. leprae is the only known human pathogen to preferentially attack the peripheral nerves, particularly of the skin 23 World's Best PowerPoint Templates - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for Best PowerPoint Templates from Presentations Magazine. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect image credit: D. Carleton Gajdusek. Discovered only in a remote region of New Guinea among the Fore tribe and closely related to mad cow disease, Kuru is caused by prions, which is a protein that encourages build-up of abnormal brain tissue that results in irreversible brain damage. 100% lethal, it's brought on by the consumption of human brains that contain the infection Acquired Prion Disease. The acquired prion diseases occur when a person is exposed to the infectious protein. Though scary, these prions are rarely caught by the people. For eg., in kuru diseases, the prions were transmitted to people by cannibalism. Its main source was New Guinea pig. Genetic Prion Disease

Prion diseases comprise several conditions. A prion is a type of protein that can trigger normal proteins in the brain to fold abnormally. Prion diseases can affect both humans and animals and are sometimes transmitted to humans by infected meat products. The most common form of prion disease that affects humans is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) Jakob disease, kuru, fatal familial insomnia, Gerstmann-Straussler-Sheinker syndrome, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease). The pathogenic prion protein, PrPSc, is formed from a normal human protein, PrPC, through post-translational processing. III. Classificatio Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. In a typical infectious disease, the incubation period signifies the period taken by the multiplying organism to reach a threshold necessary to produce symptoms in the host •BSE, scrapie, kuru, CWD, vCJD •Transmitted by ingestion, transplantation, or contact of mucous membranes with infected tissues •No standard treatment for any prion disease 11/20/2017 MDufilho 25 Neurological Diseases & Disorders A-Z from NINDS. Access a list of more than 400 neurological disorders from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.Summaries give symptom descriptions, treatment options, and prognosis, along with information about ongoing research on causes, diagnosis, and potential therapies

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressive, invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorder believed to be caused by an abnormal isoform of a cellular glycoprotein known as the prion protein. CJD occurs worldwide and the estimated annual incidence in many countries, including the United States, has been reported to be about one case. rare disease, with an average of eight reported cases annually during 1980-1999, or 1 case reported for every 2.4 million doses of OPV distributed.6, 7 The risk of VAPP is highest following the first dose of OPV and among immunodeficient persons. Since changing to an all-IPV immunization schedule in 2000, ther Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease; While further research is needed, the cause of PBA is believed to involve injury to the neurological pathways that regulate the external expression of emotion (affect). Complications. Severe symptoms of pseudobulbar affect (PBA) can cause embarrassment, social isolation, anxiety and depression Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical condition such as alcoholism, a tumor, or a stroke. Other causes may include toxins, chemicals, and viruses. Sometimes the cause is unknown

A slow virus is a virus, or a viruslike agent, etiologically associated with a slow virus disease.A slow virus disease is a disease that, after an extended period of latency, follows a slow, progressive course spanning months to years, frequently involves the central nervous system, and in most cases progresses to death.Examples of slow virus diseases include HIV/AIDS, caused by the HIV virus. Viruses are small obligate intracellular parasites, which by definition contain either a RNA or DNA genome surrounded by a protective, virus-coded protein coat. Viruses may be viewed as mobile genetic elements, most probably of cellular origin and characterized by a long co-evolution of virus and host. For propagation viruses depend on specialized host cells supplying the complex metabolic and. The term kuru is a Fore word kuria or guria (to shake). Kúru itself means trembling. This disease is also called laughing sickness. Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy. This disease is also known as Protease Sensitive Prionopathy. This disease is occurring in just 2 or 3 out of every 100 million people These diseases include kuru, a disease that was transmitted by human ritual handling of bodies and brains of the dead and was identified in Papua, New Guinea in the 1950s, and the various forms (i.e., sporadic, familial, and iatrogenic) of CJD, a rare disease with a worldwide distribution

Prion disease - SlideShar

Darier disease is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder classified as a hereditary acantholytic dermatosis. Darier disease typically presents with scaly crusted papules in a seborrhoeic distribution and in skin folds. Also known as Darier-White disease, Darier disease was previously called ' keratosis follicularis', but this is incorrect. Encephalopathy is a general term that describes a disease that damages your brain. Learn about some of the different types and causes of encephalopathy Fatal neurodegenerative diseases, such as kuru in humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle (commonly known as mad cow disease), were shown to be transmitted by prions. The disease was spread by the consumption of meat, nervous tissue, or internal organs between members of the same species

Tularemia is an infectious disease in wild rodents, squirrels, and rabbits. Humans can be infected if they're bitten. Learn how you can prevent it A prion disease is a type of proteopathy, or disease of structurally abnormal proteins. In humans, prions are believed to be the cause of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), its variant (vCJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and kuru Prions have not been classified in the same way as viruses, thus there are no families, genera, or species. They first are identified by their host species, clinical disease, and their associated lesions (Table 31.1), and then characterized further by their molecular and biological properties.Their primary amino acid sequence mainly reflects the host from which they were isolated, but also.

Prion diseases - SlideShar

  1. KURU kuru is an incurable degenerative disorder which found in the tribal region of Papua New Guinea is a type of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy caused by the prions. Word kuru derives from the word kuria means to shake and also it is known as laughing sickness
  2. Rabies, present on all continents and endemic in most African and Asian countries, is a fatal zoonotic viral disease, transmitted to humans through contact (mainly bites and scratches) with infected animals, both domestic and wild. Rabies is estimated to cause at least 55 000 deaths per year worldwide, about 56% of which occur in Asia and 44% i
  3. 1. Prevent disease and its progression, and injuries. 2. Promote healthy lifestyles and good health habits. 3. Identify, measure, monitor, and anticipate community health needs. 4. Formulate, promote, and enforce essential health policies. 5. Organize and ensure high-quality, cost-effective public health and health-care services. 6
  4. They are small, proteinaceous particles and there is controversy as to whether they contain any nucleic acid, but if there is any, there is very little, and almost certainly not enough to code for protein: Examples of prion-caused human diseases are Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome

Slow virus disease - SlideShar

Slow virus diseases - SlideShar

disease) or vaccine type (virus that could derive from a vaccine strain). Serology . Serology may be helpful in establishing a diagnosis of disease if obtained early in the course of disease. Two specimens are needed, one early in the course of the illness and another three weeks later. A four-fold rise in the tite Encephalopathy refers to a range of conditions that damage the brain's structure or function. This includes brain damage and brain disease. In this article, we look at the types, causes, symptoms.

Diseases Of Nervous System - SlideShar

The disease affects people of all sexes and races equally. About 1 in every 4 million babies are born with it worldwide. A single mistake in a certain gene causes it to make an abnormal protein. Scabies Symptoms. 2 / 20. When a person is infested with scabies for the first time, it can take four to six weeks for the skin to react. The most common symptoms are: Intense itching, especially.

PPT - GENERAL PATHOLOGY OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES PowerPoint

Neurodegenerative disease = essentially progressive and selective neuron loss. Clinically, they are not unique, e.g. dementia can be caused by several diseases (with different molecular etiologies). Each syndrome (e.g. dementia, parkinsonism, ataxia) has a most common etiology and a DDx India, Pakistan, and Egypt are also known as high-risk areas for developing this disease. Worldwide, typhoid fever affects more than 21 million people annually, with about 200,000 people dying. Mycobacteria fu001e MCQs IN MICROBIOLOGY 13. pH required for the growth of bacteria is 22. Sulphur can be utilized by bacteria in the a. 6.8 - 7.2 b. 5.6 - 8.2 form of c. 3.0 - 6.0 d. 8.0 - 14.0 a. Organic compounds b. Inorganic compounds 14 TSEs in humans include kuru, fatal familial insomnia, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (see Figure 3). TSEs in animals include mad cow disease, scrapie (in sheep and goats), and chronic wasting disease (in elk and deer). TSEs can be transmitted between animals and from animals to humans by eating. Skin is the largest organ of the body and is constantly exposed to physical, chemical, bacterial, and fungal challenges. It is well known that probiotics are helpful for specific disorders and different clinical studies have indicated that probiotics have special effects in cutaneous apparatus directly or indirectly that can be considerable from versatile aspects

10 Rarest Diseases in the World Rarest

Dercum's disease is an extremely rare disorder characterized by multiple, painful growths consisting of fatty tissue (lipomas). These growths mainly occur on the trunk, the upper arms and upper legs and are found just below the skin (subcutaneously). Pain associated with Dercum's disease can often be severe Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare neurological disease that primarily affects the nerve cells (neurons) responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement (those muscles we choose to move). Voluntary muscles produce movements like chewing, walking, and talking. The disease is progressive, meaning the symptoms get worse over time

Sciatica most commonly occurs when a herniated disk, bone spur on the spine or narrowing of the spine (spinal stenosis) compresses part of the nerve. This causes inflammation, pain and often some numbness in the affected leg. Although the pain associated with sciatica can be severe, most cases resolve with non-operative treatments in a few weeks Encephalitis (en-sef-uh-LIE-tis) is inflammation of the brain. There are several causes, but the most common is a viral infection. Encephalitis often causes only mild flu-like signs and symptoms — such as a fever or headache — or no symptoms at all. Sometimes the flu-like symptoms are more severe. Encephalitis can also cause confused.

What Are Prions? - Structure, And Diseases Caused By Prion

  1. In most cases, the disturbances of bodily function that are manifested as the signs and symptoms of viral disease result from the direct effects of viruses on cells. Knowledge of the morphologic, physiologic, biochemical, and immunologic effects of viruses on cells is essential in understanding the pathophysiology of viral disease and in developing accurate diagnostic procedures and effective.
  2. We are open for safe in-person care. Learn more: Mayo Clinic facts about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Our COVID-19 patient and visitor guidelines, plus trusted health information Latest on COVID-19 vaccination by site: Arizona patient vaccination updates Arizona, Florida patient vaccination updates Florida, Rochester patient vaccination updates Rochester and Mayo Clinic Health System.
  3. HIV-associated dementia. Dr Yuranga Weerakkody and Dr Mai-Lan Ho et al. HIV-associated dementia (HAD), previously referred to as AIDS dementia complex (ADC), corresponds to a neurological clinical syndrome seen in patients with HIV infection. The associated imaging appearance is generally referred to as HIV encephalopathy. On this page: Article
  4. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or CJD is a degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is incurable and invariably fatal.It is the most common among the types of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy found in humans Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies also known as prion diseases are a group of progressive conditions that affect the brain and nervous system of many animals.
  5. Cytomegalovirus is a DNA virus belonging to the herpesviruses group, and is also known as Human Herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). It is found in all geographic locations and socioeconomic groups, and infects between 50-80% of adults in the United States as indicated by the presence of antibodies in much of the general population

Abstract A 62-year-old man with Gerstmann-Straüssler-Scheinker syndrome, an inherited prion disease, presented after having manually externalized both his testes, including [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann -Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and kuru constitute major human prion. What is spina bifida? Spina bifida is a birth defect where the backbone doesn't close completely and can result in three main types—spina bifida occulta, men.. Epidemiology Tick-borne encephalitis is endemic to Asian, eastern European, Baltic and Nordic countries 2.The number of confirmed tick-borne encephalitis cases in Europe specifically has increased by almost 400% in recent decades, with a reported annual incidence of 10,000-12,000 3,4.Infection rate peaks over the summer months, with higher risk associated with outdoor activity, particularly in. Herpes simplex (HSV) encephalitis is the most common cause of fatal sporadic fulminant necrotizing viral encephalitis and has characteristic imaging findings. Two subtypes are recognized which differ in demographics, virus, and pattern of involvement. They are 1: This article concerns itself with the latter Gastroenteritis has to be differentiated because of nausea, vomiting and signs of dehydration in diabetic ketoacidosis. The first step in diagnosis is to test the urine for glucose and ketones. If urine is negative for ketone, another cause for the acidosis is likely. If it is positive, plasma glucose examination is required to be certain

Prion Diseases Johns Hopkins Medicin

Dry eye disease (DED), also known as dry eye syndrome (DES), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), and keratitis sicca, is a multifactorial disease of the tears and the ocular surface that results in discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. [] Dry eye disease is a common form of ocular surface disease (OSD) and may overlap with other. This cattle disease also causes a variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, a deadly human brain disease. [wur.nl] Headache Other names Cephalalgia Person with a headache Specialty Neurology Headache is the symptom of pain in the face, head, or neck Plasmodium, a genus of parasitic protozoans of the sporozoan subclass Coccidia that are the causative organisms of malaria. Plasmodium, which infects red blood cells in mammals (including humans), birds, and reptiles, occurs worldwide, especially in tropical and temperate zones.The organism is transmitted by the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito. . Other insects and some mites may also. The CNS manifestations of HIV/AIDS (neuroAIDS) occur secondary to a wide range of neurodegenerative, infectious, inflammatory, or neoplastic processes.. Epidemiology. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996, there has been a shift in the epidemiology of CNS manifestations of HIV in Western developed countries, with a decline in the incidence of.

  1. People with type 1 MetHb and hemoglobin M disease often do well. Type 2 MetHb is more serious. It often causes death within the first few years of life. People with acquired MetHb often do very well once the medicine, food, or chemical that caused the problem is identified and avoided
  2. To the Editor: The source of infection has always been regarded as an utmost factor in epidemiology.Human communicable diseases can be classified according to the source of infection as anthroponoses (when the source is an infectious human; interhuman transfer is typical), zoonoses (the source is an infectious animal; interhuman transfer is uncommon), and sapronoses (the source is an abiotic.
  3. disease, scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and kuru . Protein structure of the two forms of the prion protein GOOD!!!! BAD!!! Oncogenic potential of viruses-Cancer is a set of diseases known to disturb the normal functioning and properties of cells. Tumors may be malignant or benign - malignant tumors spread by metastasis
  4. SlideShare:COLLECTION OF MEDICAL POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONS AND LECTURE NOTES FREE DOWNLOAD. The others are Kuru, Gerstmann-Straussler- Scheinker disease and fatal familial insomnia. Classical CJD occurs in sporadic, familial and iatrogenic forms. Sporadic cases account for 85-90% of CJD cases and have an unknown cause. Familial cases make.
  5. Ecological anthropology focuses upon the complex relations between people and their environment. Human populations have ongoing contact with and impact upon the land, climate, plant, and animal species in their vicinities, and these elements of their environment have reciprocal impacts on humans (Salzman and Attwood 1996:169). Ecological anthropology investigates the ways that a population.
  6. Other prion diseases include kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. There are only about 300 reported cases of prion diseases each year in the United States, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine
  7. In medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.There are no objective biochemical or structural alterations of body organs or functions, and the disease is not recognized in other cultures

Incubation period - Wikipedi

Neurological Disorders A-Z - BrainFact

  1. Anal cancer is fairly rare (~1-2% of all gastrointestinal cancers). Its incidence is rising in the HIV community, though it remains fairly stable in the non-HIV population. Learn about the identification and treatment of this disease, with a focus on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus. April 15, 2021
  2. This is a list of common, well-known or infamous diseases.This is neither complete nor authoritative. This is not intended to be a list of rare diseases, nor is it a list of mental disorders.. This list includes both common names and technical names for diseases. This is deliberate; where multiple names are in common use for the same disease, all of those names should link to the main article.
  3. If the assumptions are not met for a gene, the population may evolve for that gene (the gene's allele frequencies may change). Mechanisms of evolution correspond to violations of different Hardy-Weinberg assumptions. They are: mutation, non-random mating, gene flow, finite population size (genetic drift), and natural selection
  4. The World Health Assembly, convened annually by WHO at the UN Palais des Nations in Geneva, passed a resolution in May 2014 approving with full support the new post-2015 Global TB Strategy with its ambitious targets
  5. Neurocysticercosis is clinically a pleomorphic disease that may be asymptomatic or manifest a variety of nonspecific mild to severe neurologic syndromes. Clinical signs in neurocysticercosis depend on the number, size, and stage of cysts, CNS location, and severity of inflammatory response against the parasites (see Table 1)

What is Down syndrome (trisomy 21)? Down syndrome is a set of symptoms that arise from a genetic abnormality, in which an individual's cells have an extra co.. Pandu was taught in the fields of archery, politics, administration and religion by Bhishma.He was an excellent archer and Maharathi (warrior). He became the successor to his kingdom and was crowned King of the Kuru Kingdom.He was married to Kunti, the adoptive daughter of Kuntibhoja and the daughter of Shurasena (father of Vasudeva Anakadundubhi and grandfather of Krishna) experimental Kuru and Creutzfeld-Jakob disease to new world monkeys 37 Genetic of Kuru notes 57 3 Genetic of Kuru - 1st draft 57 4 Genetic distance: Eastern highlands 57 5 Assoc. meeting, 1985 128 51 1st Int'l Conference on Skin Melanoma, 1985 128 52 Genetic

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Classic (CJD) Prion Diseases

  1. From today's featured article Expand image The Sirens and Ulysses is a very large oil painting by the English artist William Etty, first exhibited in 1837. It depicts the scene from Homer's Odyssey in which Ulysses (Odysseus) resists the bewitching song of the sirens by having his ship's crew tie him up, while they are ordered to block their own ears to prevent themselves from hearing the song.
  2. Malaria is a disease that is spread by the female Anopheles mosquito. There are two types of malaria: uncomplicated and severe malaria. The symptoms vary according to the type but can range from.
  3. Dry skin is a very common condition that causes small fine flakes, cracking, and dry patches.; Itching is one of the most common symptoms of dry skin.; Scratching may be hard to resist. Dry skin is more common in colder winter months and drier climates.; The elderly are more prone to dry skin than younger people.; Dry skin is more common in individuals with a history of eczema
  4. Motor neuron disorders (MNDs) are a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous group of neurologic diseases characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons; they include both sporadic and hereditary diseases. Either or both of the following 2 sets of motor neurons can be affected: Upper motor neurons (UMNs), which originate from t..
  5. Exposure to environmental toxins like lead, mercury, sulphur and asbestos. Smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Family history of neurological disorders. Genetic mutations. Congenital birth defects. Bacterial and viral infections of the CNS. Injury to the brain, spinal cord or a vital nerve
8 - Virus Structure Multiplication

Rabies is a fatal but preventable viral disease. It can spread to people and pets if they are bitten or scratched by a rabid animal. In the United States, rabies is mostly found in wild animals like bats, raccoons, skunks, and foxes. However, in many other countries dogs still carry rabies, and most rabies deaths in people around the world are. Issue Section: In thinking of the history of epidemiology, the map usually comes to mind before the calendar or the clock. During the nineteenth century, the study of the pattern and distribution of disease commonly suggested a terrain, a spatial ordering, that might align with environmental hazards, or later, with bacteriological threats Nature Biotechnology 23, 577 - 583 (2005) • Celeste A, Veera A, Kulkarni VP,.Nanoparticulate Radiolabelled Quinolines Detect Amyloid Plaques in Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease. International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2009 ;31:32 [de.slideshare.net] Familial cerebral amyloid angiopathy with nonneuritic amyloid plaque formation. Brain. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two different caries risk assessment methods on caries-free preschool children. A sample of 90 caries-free 4- to 6-year-old children were selected from 400 preschool children. The selection was limited to children who had no dental caries, visible plaque, and systemic disease

Prion diseases implications in dentistry/ dental implantDeterminants of-survival-time-in-human-prion-diseasesPrion diseases ---kuruNIDS - TSE and cattle mutilations full article

In addition, disease may result from a late immune reaction to viral antigen (e.g., arenaviruses in rodents), from unknown mechanisms in slow viral infections during which no immune response has been detected (as in the scrapie-kuru group), or mutation in the host genetic material resulting in cellular transformation and cancer Ebola is a rare but deadly virus that causes fever, body aches, and diarrhea, and sometimes bleeding inside and outside the body.. As the virus spreads through the body, it damages the immune. Overview of Influenza Replication The influenza virus has a negative sense RNA genome. In order to replicate, this means that the virus must first produce positive sense mRNA in order to produce necessary enzymes The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. You will be.